What is Fatty Liver Disease?
It is deposition of excess fat in the liver tissue. In conditions of inefficient fat metabolism or excess production of fat , it gets deposited. Fatty liver disease can occur in persons with or without consumption of alcohol.
If it occurs in people with no or little alcohol intake it is called Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).
What is the Prevalence of NAFLD in India?
Prevalence in rural India is around 10% and urban India 15-30%. The difference being due to dietary habits and lifestyle. It is emerging as the leading cause for end stage liver disease and subsequent Liver Transplants.
What are the risk factors ?
The risk factors include Overweight , Obesity, Diabetes, High Cholesterol or Triglycerides, Wrong dietary habits, Rapid weight loss.
What is NAFLD?
NAFLD is a continuous spectrum of liver diseases that starts and progresses from (1) Steatosis :Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL ) (2) Nonalcoholic SteatoHepatitis (NASH) : deposition of fat plus inflammation and fibrosis. (3) Cirrhosis of the Liver.
What are the symptoms of NAFLD?
NAFLD is symptomless until the liver failure manifests in form of jaundice , ascites ( water collection in abdomen) and altered mental status.
How is NAFLD diagnosed?
Most people have simple NAFL and not NASH. Liver biopsy is the definitive evidence , however it is invasive, costly and associated with risk of complications. Non Invasive tests like Liver Elastography or Fibroscan can be used to estimate the stiffness and fat content in the liver.
Ultrasound of Liver along with Liver Function Test may offer diagnostic clues.
How to prevent NAFLD?
Regular exercise , eating a healthy diet (low fat ), to maintain a healthy weight is the cornerstone of preventive strategies. Avoid Alcohol & Liver toxic drugs.
What should I do if have risk factors?
Please consult your Physician / Gastroenterologist to know more about the disease and the required diagnostic tests . Ask about Lifestyle and Dietary changes and if there is a treatment or medication for NAFLD.
ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE. (ALD)
What is Alcoholic Liver Disease?
It is the toxic effect of Alcohol on the liver cells (hepatocytes). There are three types of disease in a continuum spectrum starting from Fatty liver , Alcoholic Hepatitis and Cirrhosis.
Fatty liver is the initial stage and reversible with abstinence. Alcoholic hepatitis is acute liver injury resulting from large quantities over a period of time. Cirrhosis is shrinking of liver where normal liver cells are replaced by fibrosi.
What is the Prevalence of Alcoholic Liver Disease in India?
As per WHO, Around 30% of total Indian adult population consumes alcohol. 93% in the form of spirit. 7% in the form of beer and ≤1% in the form of wine. Amongst heavy drinkers,20% will develop alcoholic hepatitis and 25 % cirrhosis.
What are the risk factors ?
Daily consumption is the most important risk factor liver disease. Intake of alcohol is measured as one unit. Each unit contains 8 gm of ethanol and is variable in various common beverages, e.g. 1/2 pint of beer, 1 measure of spirit, 1 glass wine or sherry.
Risk depends on the amount and frequency: high risk–160 gm/day, moderate– 80 gm/day, low–40 gm/day.
Drinking without taking food, High concentration drinks, Mixing multiple alcoholic drinks, Alcohol binge & being a Woman are some of the factors making aperon at increased risk for ALD
What are the symptoms of Alcoholic Liver Disease?
Abdominal pain/discomfort, Liver enlargement ,Nausea/vomiting , Diarrhoea, Fever. Jaundice, Ascites ( fluid in abdomen), GI bleeding and altered sensorium can be some of the symptoms of ALD.
How is Alcoholic LIver Disease diagnosed?
History of Alcohol intake coupled with symptoms form an important component of establishing a diagnosis. Liver Function Test ( LFT ) . USG ( Ultrasound) Liver and Liver Biopsy also aid in establishing the diagnosis and stage of ALD.
How to prevent Alcoholic Liver Disease ?
Stopping Alcohol at an early stage is the only way.
What should I do if I consume Alcohol or have symptoms suggestive of ?
Please consult your Physician / Gastroenterologist to know more about the disease and the required diagnostic tests . Ask about Lifestyle and Dietary changes and if there is a treatment or medication for ALD (Alcoholic Liver Disease)
What is Viral Hepatitis ?
It is an infection of the liver by a virus. There are many viruses that can cause hepatitis. The common ones are “Hepatitis A virus”, “ Hepatitis B virus”, “ Hepatitis C”, “Hepatitis E” . There are other viruses also which can lead to viral hepatitis.
What is the Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis in India?
Acute viral hepatitis is generally Hepatitis A & E .Chronic hepatitis is Hepatitis B & C. As per studies the prevalence of viral hepatitis B in India is 2-5% and Hepatitis C is 1%.. Hepatitis A and E have regional differences in prevalence around 8-10% for A and 15-20% for B.
What are the risk factors ?
Viral hepatitis A and E are transmitted through contaminated water and food . Hepatitis B and C are transmitted through blood or sexual contact.
What are the symptoms of Viral Hepatitis?
Acute Viral hepatitis present as jaundice , nausea , vomiting and weakness. Chronic hepatitis presents as cirrhosis of the liver and end stage liver failure . Asymptomatic Chronic hepatitis is also picked up on routine screening during blood donation or preoperative assessment before a procedure.
How is Viral Hepatitis diagnosed?
Viral hepatitis is diagnosed by classical presentation of acute viral hepatitis. Liver Function Test ( LFT ) , Viral markers for A, E , B & C . USG ( Ultrasound) Liver .Liver Biopsy may also be needed in cases of chronic hepatitis..
How to prevent Viral Hepatitis ?
Hepatitis A and E can be prevented by the use of vaccination,good personal hygiene, avoiding unhygienic sources of food and drinking water. Hepatitis B and C can be prevented by adopting safe sexual practises & avoiding high risk behaviour. Diligent screening of blood products and medical instrument sterilization are also important preventive steps.
What should I do if I have symptoms suggestive of Viral Hepatitis?
Please consult your Physician / Gastroenterologist to know more about the disease and the required diagnostic tests and the available treatment.
STAY HEALTHY AND FIT WITH LIMZEST
We all require Vitamins , Antioxidants and Minerals in our daily diet to prevent deficiencies and optimise good health . However due to changes in Lifestyle and Dietary patterns involving cooking methods , eating habits and nature of raw products , we are unable to meet our Daily Recommended Allowances . This can lead to a feeling of tiredness , fatigue, exhaustion, limiting the productivity.
Different Vitamins , Antioxidants and Minerals play an important role in our metabolism and cell cycle. ( as per Harvard Medical School: health.harvard.edu)
Vitamin A / Carotenoids/ Lycopene
Very essential for vision. Keeps tissues and skin healthy. Lycopene lowers prostate cancer risk.. Alpha carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer risk. may protect against cataracts.
Vitamin C may lower the risk for oral, esophagus, stomach, and breast cancer. It is essential for collagen formation , a connective tissue that knits together wounds and supports blood vessel walls. Helps in the production of neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells and also boosts the immune system
Also called as “Sunshine Vitamin” . it regulates blood calcium and phosphorus levels and strengthen the bones. Helps form teeth and bones.
Acts as an antioxidant,. Protects lipids from damage. Vitamin E may help prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Useful for Liver cell regeneration.
It Activates proteins and calcium essential to blood clotting. Helps in preventing hip fractures.
Vitamin B Complex
|THIAMIN(vitamin B1)||Helps convert food into energy. Essential for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain and is critical for nerve function|
|RIBOFLAVIN (vitamin B2)||Helps in energy production from food. . Useful for healthy skin, hair, blood, and brain.|
|NIACIN (vitamin B3, nicotinic acid)||Essential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous system.|
PANTOTHENIC ACID (vitamin B5)
|Helps in making of lipids (fats), neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin|
|PYRIDOXINE (vitamin B6,||Lowers homo cysteine levels and reduces the risk of heart disease Helps convert tryptophan to niacin and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in sleep, appetite, and moods. Helps in RBC production and also Influences cognitive abilities and immune function|
|FOLIC ACID (vitamin B9,||Vital for new cell creation Helps prevent brain and spine birth defects when taken early in pregnancy. Lower S levels of homo cysteine reducing heart disease risk. Also reduces risk for colon cancer. Decreases breast cancer risk among women who consume alcohol.|
|COBALAMIN (vitamin B12)||Lowers homo cysteine levels, assists in making new cells and breaking down some fatty acids and amino acids. Protects nerve cells and encourages their normal growth Helps make red blood cells and DNA|
Builds and protects bones and teeth. Helps with muscle contraction and relaxation, blood clotting, and nerve impulse transmission. Plays a role in hormone secretion and enzyme activation. Helps maintain healthy blood pressure.
Helps build and protect bones and teeth. Part of DNA and RNA. Helps convert food into energy. Part of phospholipids, which carry lipids in blood and help shuttle nutrients into and out of cells
Needed for many chemical reactions in the body Works with calcium in muscle contraction, blood clotting, and regulation of blood pressure. Helps build bones and teeth
Helps form many enzymes and proteins and create new cells. Frees vitamin A from storage in the liver. Needed for immune system, taste, smell, and wound healing. When taken with certain antioxidants, zinc may delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration
Helps form bones. Helps metabolize amino acids, cholesterol, and carbohydrates
Enhances the activity of insulin, helps maintain normal blood glucose levels, and is needed to free energy from glucose
Part of several enzymes, one of which helps ward off a form of severe neurological damage in infants that can lead to early death.
Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Helps regulate thyroid hormone activity.
Plays an important role in iron metabolism and immune system. Helps make red blood cells
Helps hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscle cells ferry oxygen throughout the body. Needed for chemical reactions in the body and for making amino acids, collagen, neurotransmitters, and hormones
Vitamin A & Lycopene
Vitamin A facilitates conversion of light that hits the eyes into electrical signals sent to the brain, making it essential for preserving eyesight. In addition to preventing night-blindness, Vitamin A and Lycopene help slow down age-related macular degeneration of the eyesight.
Vitamin A also plays an important role in the growth and development of your cells. High dose of Vitamin A and Lycopene have been associated with reducing risk of cancer. Consuming lycopene has been linked to a 50% lower risk of lung and prostate cancer. Vitamin A is also an immuno-booster as it assists in the production and function of white blood cells while Lycopene supports heart health decreasing LDL cholesterol levels, keeping you healthy. When it comes to skin, Vitamin A helps prevent acne formation on the face and Lycopene helps protect against sun damage caused by UV-rays. Vitamin A is also known to support bone growth along with D3 and Calcium. Vitamin A deficiency can cause infertility in men and women. For pregnant women, Vitamin A is involved in the growth and development of the child in the womb from its bones to its heart. (Disclaimer: Should be taken under serious advisement from your consulting doctor when pregnant)
Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that helps boost immunity and fight several ailments of illnesses like high blood pressure, heart disease risk factors and gout (a type of arthritis) attacks by reducing blood uric acid levels. Vitamin C also facilitates iron absorption by 67% reducing risk of anemia for those prone to it. Vitamin C has been shown to have a protective effect on thinking and memory with age, it may help prevent dementia in the older population. Vitamin C being a potent antioxidant helps radicalize free antioxidants and aids in your skin’s natural regeneration process that help treat UV damage and Air pollution. Vitamin C also helps with skin discoloration like dark spots and hyperpigmentation giving you a beautiful glow from the inside out!
Vitamin D3; the sunshine vitamin is produced in our skin as a response to sunlight but due to lifestyle changes the percentage has declined over years leading to deficiencies. Feeling tired or exhausted or severe weakness are symptoms of fatigue caused due to deficiency of vitamin D3 in the body. Vitamin D3 is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the body along with facilitating immune system functioning. Vitamin D3 deficiencies can lead to bone abnormalities, osteomalacia or osteoporosis. Vitamin D3 is an essential vitamin for both, bone and teeth growth. Vitamin D3 is not only beneficial to our physical health but also plays a role in improving anxiety and depression that fall under mental health conditions. It’s also a great vitamin to aid weight loss for those on the journey to lose a few kg’s. Overall, Vitamin D3 is an essential vitamin needed by the human body to function normally.
Similar to the rusting of iron, a process of oxidation takes place in our bodies when cells are exposed to free radicals. Vitamin E being a strong antioxidant reduces free radical damage and slows down the aging process of our cells. Vitamin E helps in protection with respect to higher environmental stresses like air pollution and UV damage. Vitamin E also prevents hair loss and gives a great silky luster to the hair! Vitamin E is associated with delaying the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and improving liver function for patients with fatty liver disease. (or useful for liver regeneration?)
Vitamin K activates proteins and calcium essential to blood clotting. Blood clotting is an essential mechanism of the body without which, one might bleed to death from a minor injury.
Vitamin K also assists bone growth and development, preventing hip fractures. Vitamin K activates a protein that helps prevent calcium from depositing in your arteries playing a major role in preventing heart diseases. Vitamin K is great for heart health!
Vitamin B complex
|THIAMIN (vitamin B1)||Helps convert food into energy. Essential for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain and is critical for nerve function.|
|RIBOFLAVIN(vitamin B2)||Helps in energy production from food. Useful for healthy skin, hair, blood, and brain|
|NIACIN (vitamin B3, nicotinic acid)||Essential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous system|
|PANTOTHENIC ACID (vitamin B5)||Helps in making of lipids (fats), neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin|
|PYRIDOXINE (vitamin B6,||Lowers homocysteine levels and reduces the risk of heart disease. Helps convert tryptophan to niacin and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in sleep, appetite, and moods. Therefore, helps lowering symptoms of depression. Helps in RBC production and also Influences cognitive abilities and immune function.|
|FOLIC ACID(vitamin B9,||Vital for new cell creationHelps prevent brain and spine birth defects when taken early in pregnancy. Lowers levels of homocysteine reducing heart disease risk. Also reduces risk for colon, gut, lung and pancreatic cancer. Decreases breast cancer risk among women who consume alcohol.|
|COBALAMIN (vitamin B12)||Lowers homocysteine levels, assists in making new cells and breaking down some fatty acids and amino acids improving the heart health. Protects nerve cells and encourages their normal growth. Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in producing red blood cells thus preventing anemia. Vitamin B12 has been linked with providing higher energy levels and elevated moods, lowering depression.|
Over 99% of calcium in your body is stored in your bone and teeth. It is essential in maintaining strong bone health, release of insulin hormone maintaining healthy blood pressure in the body and regulation of contraction and dilation of blood vessels. When it comes to strengthening of the bones, calcium plays a vital rolein maintaining bones and slow down bone density loss, which is a natural part of the aging process. Calcium, along with vitamin D, may have benefits beyond bone health: perhaps protecting against cancer, diabetes and high blood pressure.
Phosphorus plays a role in formation of both, DNA and RNA and is an essential mineral to maintain bone health and convert food to energy in our bodies. Part of phospholipids, which carry lipids in blood and help shuttle nutrients into and out of cells. It also helps filter out wastes from the kidney and maintain a healthy heart rhythm.
Magnesium plays a role in over 300 enzyme reactions in the human body. It can help prevent or treat chronic diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and migraine. Along with calcium, magnesium too plays a vital role in bone health formation and maintenance.
Zinc is needed to active T-lymphocytes in the body which regulate immune responses, therefore zinc deficiency can severely impair the immune system. Zinc also has other more common uses like healing wounds and treating common colds. When taken with other antioxidants, zinc may delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration.
Manganese along with calcium, zinc and copper is essential for bone development and maintenance. Manganese is a part of the antioxidant system SOD which is the most important antioxidant in the body which helps combat free radical damage and reduce inflammation in the body. Manganese is a vasodilator which enlarges veins to efficiently carry blood to tissues like the brain which lowers stroke risks and improve brain function.
Chromium significantly lowers blood sugar levels helping with type 2 diabetes. Chromium aids the action of insulin which is essential in the metabolism process assisting weight loss. It also enhances performance and increases energy levels.
Molybdenum acts as a catalyst for enzymes and to help the breakdown of certain amino acids in the human body. Metabolism is responsible for energy formation and molybdenum is responsible for healthy metabolism. It also increases the antioxidant capacity of the blood.
Copper is one of the most vital minerals needed by the body. It is responsible for several mechanisms in the body including production of red blood cells preventing anemia, activation of the immune system and regulation of heart rate and blood pressure. It is also responsible for the absorption of iron in the body and may be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. It is needed for chemical reactions in the body and for making amino acids, collagen, neurotransmitters, and hormones.
Biotin also known as Vitamin B7 is responsible for a healthy skin, liver and nervous system. It is also crucial during pregnancy for embryonic growth. It plays a major role in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Biotin helps repair brittle nails, making them stronger. Also helps with hair growth, making them healthier, stronger and shinier.
Iron too comes under the most vital minerals needed by the body. The chief function of iron is to form hemoglobin whose main purpose is to transfer oxygen in the blood. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, fatigue and weakness. It promotes athletic performance and increased energy levels by boosting muscle strength. Iron also helps improve concentration and attention levels.
Beneficial for those suffering from insomnia as it helps restore sleep